The impact of school heads’ demographic characteristics on their leadership styles


  • Asif Iqbal university of education Lahore
  • Zahida Javed GC Women University Faisalabad
  • Noor Muhammad University of Agricultural Faisalabad Toba Tek Singh campus


Leadership, autocratic, Islamic Model, Democratic style


The concept of leadership is as old as the emergence of the universe. The leadership role of school heads is to promote the vision of intellectual understanding by motivating the employees for the progress and benefit of the organization. The current study aims at exploring the impact of school heads’ demographic characteristics on their leadership styles. Sixty-six school heads were selected randomly from secondary schools in district Faisalabad and the instrument used for data collection was Leadership Styles Survey [LSS]. The results revealed a non-significant distinction for male and female heads for autocratic, democratic, Islamic Model, and laisses-faire styles of leadership. Age was found to create significant effect on democratic, Islamic Model, and laisses-faire styles of leadership but an autocratic style of leadership had a non-significant effect. A significant impact of age on headteachers’ leadership styles for the democratic leadership style for Islamic Model and laissez-faire styles leadership was recorded while there was a significant effect of age on headteachers’ autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire styles of leadership. There was a significant effect of experience on headteachers’ democratic and for laissez-faire style. It is recommended to improve the leadership style of the heads with updated training and technology.


Download data is not yet available.


Bell, L., Bolam, R., & Cubillo, L. (2003). A systematic review of the impact of school head teachers and principals on student outcomes. London: University of London Institute of Education.

Chandan, J. S. (1987). Management theory and practice. New York; Vikas Publishing House.

Cheng, Y. C. (2002). The changing context of school leadership: Implications for

paradigm shift. In K. Leithwood & P. Halinger (eds.). Second international handbook of educational leadership and administration. USA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Choi, S. (2007). Democratic Leadership: The Lessons of Exemplary Models for Democratic Governance. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 2(3), 243-262.

Daft, R. L. (2005). Management. Singapore: Thomson Asia.

Elliott, C. (1992). Leadership and change in schools. Issues in Educational Research, 2, 45- 55.

Goleman, D. (2000). Leadership that gets results. Harvard Business Review, March-April, 2000.

Iqbal, A. (2011). A comparative study of the impact of principals’ leadership styles on the

job satisfaction of teachers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, IER, University of the Punjab Lahore.

Iqbal, A., Shah, M. A., & Ali, S. A. (2020). A study of leadership styles of HoDs and the academic achievement of university students. Hamdard Islamicus, 43(2), 143-150.

Likert, R. (1967). The Human Organization. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Lippit, R., & White, R. K. (1960). Leader behavior and member reactions in three social climates. In I. D. Cartwright & A. Zander (Eds.). Group dynamics. New York: Harper & Row.

Khalid, M., Hashmi, A., & Iqbal, I. (2020). Teaching Learning Styles – Degree of Match Instructions at Secondary Level. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(9s), 390-396.

Khanka, S. S. (2007). Organizational behavior: Text and cases. New Delhi: Chand and company.

Leithwood, K., & Jantzi, D. (2000). Principal and teacher leadership effects: A replication. School Leadership and Management, 20(4), 415–434.

Mullins, L. (1999). Management and organizational behavior (6th ed.). London: Pitman.

Okumbe, J. A. (1998). Educational management theory and practice. Nairobi University Press, Nairobi.

Omolayo, B. (2007). Effect of leadership style on job-related tension and psychological sense of community in work organizations: A case study of four organizations in Lagos State, Nigeria. Bangladesh e-Journal of Sociology, 4(2), 1–8.

Omolayo, B. O. (2004). Influence of job variables on workers’ commitment and satisfaction in four selected Nigerian manufacturing industries. Unpublished thesis, University of Ado-Ekiti.

Owens, R. G. (2004). Organizational behavior. USA: Pearson Education.

Sahni, N. K. (2004). Management concepts and organizational behavior. New Delhi: Kalyani Publishers.

Silins, H. C. (1992). Effective leadership for school reform. The Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 38(4), 317–334.

Starrett, R. J. (1993). Transforming life in schools: Conversations about leadership and school renewal. Hawthorn, Victoria: Australian Council for Educational Administration.




How to Cite

Iqbal, A., Javed, Z., & Muhammad, N. (2020). The impact of school heads’ demographic characteristics on their leadership styles. Competitive Social Science Research Journal, 1(2), 19–30. Retrieved from